Monday, December 30, 2019
Critical Review Essay Women In the Iliad The role of women in the Iliad is a subject that remains open to debate. Lefkowitz, in her article The Heroic Women of Greek Epic, argues that without the role of women in the Iliad the story would not have occurred (504 ). Lefkowitz points out that the Iliad opens with a description of a plague that was caused as the result of the capture of Chrysies by Agamemnon (504). Chryseis is the daughter of a priest named Chryses. Chryses wants his daughter back, so he offers a ransom to Agamemnon to try to get him to return his daughter. Agamemnon doesnt accept the ransom, so Chyrses prays to Apollo to help him. Upon Chyrsess prayer, Apollo sends a plague on the Greeks. Once the plague isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Murphy states that, these women do not provoke action on frivolous pretexts nor yet on behalf of the tribe or nation, for there is very little sense of nation in Old Icelandic literature (111). Murphy begins his article discussing what a taunter does. He states that taunters, ....fulfill a special need in such societies, namely to probe the qualifications of an unknown `hero, or to provoke the known hero into the kind of heroic act that society needs at a given time (105). He uses Aeneas as an example of an official taunter in the Iliad. Murphy then goes on to discuss the role of women in the Iliad. Murphy states that, Like the official taunters they do not themselves participate physically in the frequently savage fighting and feuding of the sagas which they often cause in a very direct and deliberate way by goading their men into curses of action sometimes very much against those mens good judgment and mutual friendship (111). Murphy then goes on to discuss another subject; he does not go into depth about which character may have played this role of an unofficial taunter. By interpretation one may infer that he is referring to all the women in the Iliad. Lets look at Briseis for an example. Briseis played the role of an unofficial taunter because she was the underlying reason for the feud between Agamemnon and Achilles. There wasnt much information given about Briseis in theShow MoreRelatedThe Role of Women in the Iliad Essay724 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThesis Statement: Women play a major role in the Iliad. Examining the impact of female characters in an epic dominated by war and the men who fought it. Major female characters include Helen, Briseis, Athena, Aphrodite, Hera , Thetis and Chrysies. The Iliad is first and foremost an epic poem about a war waged by men. Even though there are no female warriors , apart from the goddesses, women play a major role in defining the course of it. The roots of the war can be traced back to the beautyRead MoreEssay on The Impact of Women in The Iliad579 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Women have always been recognized for their strong influence on the actions of men. Because of his love for Delia, Samson told his secret of his power and ended up losing it. In Shakespeares Macbeth, Lady Macbeth urged Macbeth to commit murder. More recently, Eleanor Roosevelt strongly influenced the decisions that Franklin D. Roosevelt made. Women of Homers epic, The Iliad, were considered primary instigators of the Trojan war. The characteristics attributed to women in ancient GreekRead MoreOppression Of Women In The Iliad And Metamorphoses716 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmost all of them contain the theme, in some fashion, of the degradation and abuse of women. The notion that women are treated unfairly and face cruel conditions is not a new idea and never has been, by looking through these works one can almost put a date to the starting point to the oppression of women. In texts such as The Iliad and Metamorphoses women are used as a means to the male satisfaction, in The Iliad Pa risÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Aphrodite gave Paris Helen as a reward. In Metamorphoses Apollo takesRead MoreThe Role of Women in the Iliad Essay examples1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe role of Women in the Iliad Throughout history, women have held many different roles in society. Men have traditionally been viewed as superior since the beginning of time. Homers Iliad is an excellent example of the suppressive role of women at this time. Women were treated merely as property and were used for producing material within the household. Paralyzed by their unfortunate circumstances, they were taken and given as if they were material belongings. In Homers Iliad, we conceiveRead More Essay on Women in Iliad, Odyssey, and the Bible1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRole of Women in Iliad, Odyssey, and the Bible Much is known of men in ancient civilizations, from the famous philosophers and mathematicians of Greece to the patriarchs and subsequent kings of the nation of Israel. It would seem, however, that history has forgotten the women of these times. What of the famous female thinkers of Ancient Greece, the distinguished stateswomen of Rome? What power did they hold? What was their position in societies of the distant past? A glimpse into the roles andRead More The Role of Women in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Iliad Essay796 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Role of Women in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Iliad HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Iliad is undoubtedly focused on its male characters: Achilles, primarily, but also Hector and Agamemnon. Nevertheless, it seems that the most crucial characters in the epic are female. Homer uses the characters of Thetis, Andromache, and Helen as a basis for comparison to the male characters. Homer wants his audience to see and understand the folly of his male characters in choosing war over peace, aggression over kindness, and honor over family. WhileRead MoreWomen In Homers Iliad And The Woman In Genesis1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe women in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Iliad and the women in Genesis both exhibit the accepted societal values in a woman through their duties as wives, which typically consists of obedience and the ability to sustain their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s lineage. Rebekah and Andromache both assume their roles as wives, but sometimes act in ways outside of what was considered normal in their society. Though both Rebekah and Andromache maintain the classic role of a wife, they occasionally contradict the expectations of how a woman shouldRead MoreComparison between The Iliad and The Women of Troy Essay903 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Iliad by Homer and the Women of Troy by Euripides are both Greek works of literature that look at the Trojan War from different perspectives. Book 6 of the Iliad illustrates that the ultimate glory is to fight for the city with no regard to the impact on the family. The Women of Troy focuses on the negatives that war causes, especially towards the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s wives and children. Whereas the Iliad focuses on the battle itself and centers on the warriors, the Women of Troy focuses on the wrathRead MoreAnalysis Of Alessandro Baricco An Iliad And Trojan Women1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Trojan War was fueled by the Greeks and Trojans hunger for honor and fear of disgrace. Yet, it is this same notion of glory that led to the demise of itÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest heroes. Alessandro Baricco An Iliad and Trojan Women share the stories of Achilles, Patroclus, Hecuba, and Andromache, and the consequences they faced when they valued their honor too highly. Both Achilles and Pandurus viewed their prestige as their social status, leading them to make selfish and impractical decisions to preserve theirRead More A Comparison of the Role of Women in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Odyssey and Iliad3375 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesThe Role of Women in Odyssey and The Iliad The Iliad and Odyssey present different ideals of women, and the goddesses, who are presented as ideal women, differ between the two epics. The difference in roles is largely dependent on power, and relations to men, as well as sexual desirability and activity. The goddesses have a major role in both epics as Helpers of men. They have varied reasons for this. Ã One is a maternal instinct. This is displayed in the literal mother-son relationships
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Edgar Allan Poe and Robert Frost influenced my thorough love of different styles of literature, particularly poetry. To the masses, Edgar Allan Poe and Robert Frost only share job titles, but the two poets share many similarities within their writing. Personally, I read pieces from both authors over the course of my schooling experience. I admired Robert FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The Road Not TakenÃ¢â¬ from a young age, and that particular stole my heart since the first read. Ã¢â¬Å"The Raven,Ã¢â¬ became one of my favorite poems further down my schooling career, with its clear ominous tone that symbolizes much of PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s writing. FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s and PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s works may not seem similar, aside from the section in which their books reside within a library, but their work resembles each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s quite well. FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s writing serves as a better introduction to poetry due to his easily relatable themes, his background connects to everyday audiences, and his use o f modern language. The majority of Robert FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry features a down-home, country, naturalistic tone. However, he reached for the dark sinister tone, reminiscent of Poe. In the poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The Witch of Coos,Ã¢â¬ Frost raises the hair on audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s arms with the chilling imagery of an elderly woman keeping a secret. Within this poem, Frost explains the dark secret of the mother and son within the dialogue. Without giving away what events took place directly, Frost brings about a story which reminds audiences of campfire horror stories. Poe, on the other hand,Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s Writing874 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesalready set to fail. But while I was attending Whatley elementary during the month of October as a 2nd grader my teacher decided to bend the rules for the first time and she introduce me and my fellow classmates to an author known as Edgar Allan Poe. Now Edgar Allan Poe, a complicated individual, was not an author you would pres ent to a class of 2nd graders because most of his work is for a more mature audience. The book that she read to us was called Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ and it was about a man whoRead MoreMajor Movements Of Poetry : Poetry, Comedy, Ode And Lyric Essay1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfamous poet, Robert Browning. However, she was also recognized as a Victorian poet, and some critics hold the belief that she was more prominent in the poetry world than her husband. After all, most well-read people are familiar with her famously penned lines, Ã¢â¬Å"How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ American poet, Edgar Allan Poe (1809-49) who was the master of the dark and macabre, effectively launched his career after the publication of his unnerving poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ in 1845. Poe also wroteRead MoreANALIZ TEXT INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS28843 Words Ã |Ã 116 Pagesa combination of the two? 2. What are the chief episodes or incidents that make up the plot? Is its development strictly chronological, or the chronology rearranged in some way? 3. Compare the plotÃ¢â¬â¢s beginning and end. What essential changes have taken place? 4. Describe the plot in terms of its exposition, complication, crisis, falling action and resolution. 5. Is the plot unified? Do the individual episodes logically relate to one another? 6. Is the ending appropriate to and consistent with the
Friday, December 13, 2019
Dubai has already emerged as a leading regional commercial hub offering world class infrastructure and a business environment second-to-none. But barriers for an easily successful work assignment in the UAE, particularly Dubai consist of a number of factors that make people exchanges more complicatedÃ¢â¬âdifferences in principle, language and behavior in the work environment. Although business customs will vary somewhat in the region, by trying to understand Islam and Arab culture, an individual is in better position to be effective. We will write a custom essay sample on DubaiÃ¢â¬â¢s Work And Cultural Environment or any similar topic only for you Order Now In Dubai, the work is demanding, going from 7 or 8 a. . to noon or 1 p. m. , when the midday heat encourages long lunches and perhaps naps; people work again from 4 to at least 8 p. m. Far more than government employment, private business is competitive and demanding, and the hours are long. For many businessmen, lunches are also business meetings, and sometimes international business timings mean that there is no real break at midday. Meetings in Dubai take a little getting used to as business executives are expected to arrive punctually, but can end up waiting a long time for the host. Meetings, when they do eventually start, can go for hours without seemingly achieving anything tangible. It should be also pointed out that in the emirate, employees are more loyal to their companies and therefore are difficult to lure away even for big money. Negotiation and informal mediation or conciliation remain the most common means of resolving commercial disputes in Dubai. The scale and pace of development within the emirate over the past few years have, however, brought about an increased need for more formal dispute resolution services. More recently, the growing desirability of Dubai as an investment destination and as a regional or international base for multinational companies, has created a demand for dispute resolution services. In ascriptive cultures characteristic of Dubai, status, which is derived from the job title or general characteristics such as age or birth, is what matters. Ascription oriented cultures tend to correspond with cultures which exhibit high power distance dimension (Jackson 357). Care needs to be taken regarding who represents an organization in negotiations in ascriptive-oriented cultures. Representation of an organization in negotiations by young, high-fliers from an achievement oriented culture is often regarded by an ascriptive organization as an indication that the talks are not taken very seriously or even as a sign of disrespect. The size of the team can also be an issue: if the lead negotiator/ company representative is not accompanied by a suitably large team of assistants, then an ascriptive oriented organization can reach similar conclusions about its counterparts. Dubai is more culturally South Asian, as compared to its rival emirate Abu Dhabi, which is more culturally Arabic. Traditional gender conventions weigh less heavily on expatriate women in Dubai than in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait or Abu Dhabi. Dubai, as a member of the UAE, also follows Islamic sharia and Arabic is its official language, but it was strongly influenced by the British and South Asian connection (Moran, Harris and Moran 338). Thus, in Dubai, Urdu (Hindustani) is readily spoken and understood by many Arabs. Also, in the said emirate, expatriate workers are conspicuous on Fridays, when most have their day off. The challenge for a business executive when operating on foreign soils, in this particular paper Dubai, is to understand and properly infer the different cultural signs. This could be significant in an expatriate work environment, as expatriates operate in a very uncertain environment, and the reality can be vicariously influenced by the culture that prevails within. Inability to do this can end in severe difficulties for specific initiatives. In order to cooperate with rather than work against factors that are culturally related, it is essential to make out that all humans see society by means of a cultural prism and that, although cultural preconceptions may be shared by others within the organization and to an extent by those with the identical nationality, they may be foreign to those to whom the organizational venture is hoping to do business with. How to cite DubaiÃ¢â¬â¢s Work And Cultural Environment, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Greek Education v.s Roman Education Essay Similarities and Differences:Ancient Greece vs. Ancient RomeMany qualities of the Ancient Roman civilization were undoubtedly borrowed from their predecessors of the Greek culture (Bonner 1). Roman education, however, is only a reflection of the Greek education system. Ancient Roman education tactics differ from the education methods used by Ancient Greek instruction. Nevertheless, these two different approaches contain many similarities. Although the Romans made an effort to reproduce the style of education maintained by the Greeks, their attempts failed; however Rome managed to adopt many principles of Greek education in the process. This is made apparent by comparing and contrasting Greek and Roman education methods as well as the explanation of the worldly problems and expectations each culture was facing during this era. It was not until Rome conquered the small Greek society, Tarentum, in 272 B.C. that they could see the importance of being intellectuals (Dobson 92). This conta ct with Greek culture allowed Romans to employ the Greek values of education that could be observed within this small culture (Dobson 92). Prior to the creation of state maintained schools and academies in Greece, higher education was mainly reserved for the elite persons of a community (Handbook: Greece 253). Training for these citizens consisted of instruction in the areas of music, poetry, numeracy, and religious ritual (Handbook: Greece 253). Unlike the Greeks, Roman education was practically nonexistent before the development of official school systems in the Roman culture (Dobson 91). By law, early Roman education required that the father be the only schoolmaster of his son (Dobson 94). The mother would teach children basic principles until age seven (Avi-Yonah 176). Afterward, the father was in charge of the upbringing of his child (Avi-Yonah 176). Aside from teaching basic reading, writing, and arithmetic, the primary subject of instruction consisted almost entirely of battl e tactics and farming procedures (Avi-Yonah 176). Ancient Greece developed the idea of school systems around mid seventh century B.C., one century after writing was introduced (Handbook: Greece 253), however, it was not until the Hellenistic age that these schools were founded or maintained by the city (Devambez 404). Before the Hellenistic age parents were encouraged to send their students to school, but were not forced by law (Devambez 404). The parents of a student would pay a fee to the teacher in exchange for tutoring (Devambez 404). The fees were typically very low because most of the teachers were slaves or very poorly paid (Handbook: Greece 254). The only children that lacked proper education were those from impoverished families that could not afford to pay the teaching fees (Devambez 404). Roman education began much differently than Greece education. After centuries of war between Rome and its neighboring countries, Romans finally found enough time for studying the arts (D obson 92). It is unclear when the Ancient Romans originally established a school system because there is no much controversy over the different accounts (Dobson 96), however the first documented account was in the third century B.C. (Handbook: Rome 211). Romans strived to achieve the same level of education system as Ancient Greece; however, the few educated Romans that attempted to establish the Roman education system were generally unsuccessful in their efforts (Avi-Yonah, 177). Roman education topics were similar to those in Greece, yet the approach of education was very dissimilar. The short- lived earlier Roman style of teaching involved much different concepts than the systems used by the Ancient Greeks (Handbook: Rome, 211). The instructors for these subjects were generally Greeks that had been enslaved and forced to teach (Bonner 165). This explains the similarities between the subject matter taught in both Roman and Greek schools. The main areas of instruction for both Anci ent Roman and Greek pupils were composed of basic arithmetic and reading and writing skills until at least age eleven (Handbook: Rome 211). With the exception of Sparta, Classic Greek schools taught these basic skills to practically all young children, but only the sons of the rich would continue their studies up to age eighteen (Handbook: Greece 253). Classical Athens consisted of three basic forms of education: reading, music, and gymnastics (Handbook: Greece 253)Athenian schools consisted of reading, writing, and arithmetic taught by a grammatiste, which was a tutor for young children (Handbook: Greece 253). Reading in schools of Classical Athens typically involved the works of Homer (Dewald 1099). Homeric literature created a basis for teaching the basic reading and writing skills as well as literary expertise (Dewald 1078). Progress was recorded by how many Homeric works a student had read as well as which ones (Dewald 1079). Music and poetry was taught by a kithariste, or lyre player (Handbook: Greece 253). Music was a very important aspect of Greek education and a great deal of importance was laid on the instruction of singing and musical instruments in both Sparta and Classical Athens (Devambez 173). They created a new durable science and aesthetic of music that was applied to mathematics and used for psychological insight into the performer (Levi 151). A paidotribe, or trainer, taught sports and physical education (Handbook: Greece 253). This aspect of education was enforced more in the Spartan society than in Athens (Handbook: Greece 253). Unlike Athens, Spartan schools enforced a militaristic type of education (Handbook: Greece 253). Boys between the ages of seventy and twenty were taken from their homes and trained in combat with an emphasis on music and dancing, sports and physical education (Handbook: Greece 253). The girls were also trained in these subjects in order to be fit mothers of future warriors (Handbook: Greece 253). During Hellenistic times, the children were broken into three age groups (Handbook: Greece 254). This is the period in which secondary education emerged, along with the structuring of public school buildings, gymnasiums, and libraries (Handbook: Greece 254). Almost every community held these buildings and public schooling was practically enforced by common law (Levi 154). The Hellenistic period gave way to new teaching principles and higher education (Dewald 1090). Children were split into age groups that consisted of children up to age fourteen, children fourteen through eighteen, and those over eighteen (Handbook: Greece 254). The second group of students would continue their education and further their knowledge of unknown subjects (Handbook: Greece 254). Due to increased research on certain areas of study, children were then able to explore new fields of interest, rather than the basic reading, writing, and arithmetic that was being taught in Classical Athens (Dewald 1090)The sci ences were one of the many subjects that researchers gained interest in (Dewald 1090). Science and mathematics were very important to the Greeks philosophers because the two subjects were so closely related; they were often taught as a function of one another (Dewald 1090). Many philosophers even created Academies for the specific intent of furthering the knowledge of these subjects and how they affected astronomy, philosophy, and other important topics of the unknown world (Dewald 1088-1089). Before the creation of schools, early Roman education principles resembled those of Sparta more than any other Greek society. In Roman society, after the age of eleven the son would be taught additional literary subjects in Latin and Greek by a grammaticus in order to prepare for rhetoric (Handbook Rome 211). However, the main study of interest was weapon handling and combat routines (Dobson 95). This is probably due to the preoccupation with war and survival during the first five hundred years of Roman existence (Dobson 91). As Roman education advanced and schools were formed, Greek slaves were taken as tutors (Bonner 37). Roman curriculum consisted of many of the same concepts as the Greeks, but was also very different in content. Roman education soon began to resemble that of the Greeks during the Hellenistic period (Gwynn 35). Greek philosophers that came to Rome soon after the conquer of Tarentum contributed to the Hellenization of Roman culture (Gwynn 35). One difference between the rhetoric styles of Roman and Greece is the fact that Romans adopted the Latin style of rhetoric by about second century B.C. (Handbook: Rome 211). As the Greek students had studied Homer, there was no dominant literary source for Roman society, therefore the children studied both Greek and Latin literature(Dobson 98). Because the idea of Roman education was to produce useful citizens, which was the social approach to teaching, young Romans studied the literature in order to develop effective speaking skills (Handbook: Rome, 211). In this way, Rome replicated the Greek culture, however, the learning styles were somewhat different in that Greek studied Homer for historical records and literary accounts, but Romans used these literary works to improve their social and writing skills (Handbook: Rome, 211). A fundamental difference between these two cultures is the incorporation of foreign languages (Dobson 111). While the Romans primarily spoke Latin, many of the study texts were written in the Greek language and required translation by the Roman students (Dobson 111). The Greeks had never included any language other than their own in their studies (Dobson 111). Another difference in the content of Roman studies includes the study of history (Dobson 118). Young Romans would study the history of their countrys legends in great detail, whereas Greeks primarily studied the fictional accounts of Homer (Dobson 118). In addition, Romans did not study mathematics and science as specifically as the Greeks had (Dobson 127). The basic groups of study for these two cultures were fundamentally similar. Roman children were often split into age groups for teaching, just as the Greeks had done during Hellenistic times. After age seven the children were taught basic skills and would advance to more complex material at age twelve (Handbook: Rome 211). Their education would then continue until the age of eighteen or nineteen (Bonner 45). Just as the Greeks had, Roman schools also included poetry and music as a basic area of study, although these subjects were not as highly esteemed as they were in the Greek schools (Bonner 44). Both boys and girls would participate in chorus as well as individual performances and many would accompany themselves on stringed instruments (Bonner 44). Although musicians were considered socially inferior by Roman societal standards, music was often incorporated in religious ceremonies and special occasions (Avi-Yonah 304). Continued education was significantly dissimilar in Greece th an in Rome (Avi-Yonah 13). Greek Academies were widespread by around 300 B.C., however, little is known about academies during the Roman Empire ( Avi-Yonah 13). Most Romans that wished to continue their education were sent to Greek academies for further study, or would hire a specialist (Avi-Yonah 177). Eventually, Rome began to adopt specialty schools, but mainly in the subjects of Roman law and music (Avi-Yonah 177). Greek academies were prevalent during Roman existence. One of the well-known Greek academies that existed around 387 B.C. was Platos Academy (Dewald 1088). Plato was a devoted pupil of Socrates and founded this academy primarily for the pursuit of knowledge (Handbook: Greece 254). The instruction included important intellectual aptitude mainly in the subjects of mathematics and poetry, which were not popular among the Roman pupils (Dewald 1088). Shortly after Platos Academy was founded, Aristotle launched another admired research establishment (Dewald 1090). Aristotles Lyceum did not use dialect and discussion in the pursuit of knowledge (Dewald 1090). His theory included further study of biology rather than mathematics and believed in extensive research of this subject (Dewald 1090). The Lyceum was originally founded in order to collect biological research and further the knowledge of unknown materials (Dewald 1090). These institutions were among the greatest secondary schools in Ancient Greece, and were the models for establishments that followed (Dewald 1091). Because Roman scholars did not readily accept the theories and study of sciences, which were appointed by these schools, continued education for Romans was very undesirable (Dewald 1088). This could have been one of the main attributers to the lack of well-educated Romans during this time period. Based on the knowledge and research collaborated in this paper, this writer has concluded that although Roman education was very similar to the Hellenistic style of education, it still lacks the order and consistency of the Greek methods of teaching. Roman education was founded much later than Greek education and was actually based on the same style of teaching, however, Roman education tended to include its own subject matter and style in its teachings. Although many Romans intended to Hellenize Roman education, the attempts were failed. Romans simply did not duplicate the Greeks. However, the Romans did adopt many Greek principles of education in the process. Annotated BibliographyAdkins, Lesley. Adkins, Roy A. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece. New York, NY: Facts On File, Inc., 1997. This book is written on the basis of published sources and contains photographs of authentic Ancient Greek artifacts. The authors use unbiased text to describe the customs and habits of daily life i n Ancient Greece. These habits are illustrated through the explanation of subjects such as rulers and leaders, economy and trade, geography, mythology, philosophy, and various other aspects of everyday life in Ancient Greece. The topics covered by this handbook are arranged by major areas of study and featured in ten separate chapters. The subject matter within chapters is compiled on the basis of time period in which the events occurred and the different areas that were effected by the event or subject. The book contains an index with references to particular subjects mentioned throughout the book and includes explanations of certain words. The authors intentions were to summarize the material covered and does not include minor details, however this source also includes a complete bibliography that can be used to find further references on any subject covered by this book. This source is helpful in explaining the practice of education in Ancient Greek times because it explains the daily events that revolved around the education aspect of the culture. The chapter entitled Written Evidence contains a summarized account of education rituals within three different societies of Ancient Greece: Sparta, Classical Athens, and the Hellenistic culture. This section explains the amount of education generally received by the citizens of a culture and describes the type of education given to the men and women of these cultures. This book also consists of several authentic photos and drawings that can be useful in describing the characteristics of education (i.e. writing utensils, alphabet, numerals, etc.). Aside from the section explaining education rituals, the author also includes an account of the Greek alphabet and how it developed through time, as well as a description of the numeral system and its significance in numerous areas of study. The importance of literature in education is also explained through a timetable of authors and literary events, however the events are not described any further than the date of the account. Music and dance is another important element of education in Ancient Greece. This handbook contains a section that relates music and dance to the everyday lives of the citizens. It explains how this element affected the learning techniques as well as traditions, celebrations and rituals. This source is a reliable reference for a summarized account of particular events and several aspects of Ancient Greek culture, however the authors do not include major details of these events and all subject matter has been summarized and shortened to create this handbook. Devambez, Pierre, Robert Flaceliere, and Pierre-Maxime Schuhl. A Dictionary ofAncient Greek Civilisation. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd. 1966. The three main contributors of this book are three Hellenists: a philosopher, a literary historian, and an archeologist. These authors are also professors and/or philosophers in the subjects covered by this material. Pierre Devambe z is thehead of the Greek and Roman antiquities in the Louver and the director of studies at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (7). Robert Flaceliere, the second contributor to this work, is a professor of Greek rhetoric at the Sorbonne and a director of the Ecole Normale Superieure. The third contributor, Pierre-Maxime Schuhl, is a professor of Classical Grammar and Philology at the University of Dijon. Through out the text they examine the religious beliefs, way of life,economy, social and political structure of the Ancient Greeks (5) by giving descriptions of commonly used terms of Ancient Greek culture. The basis for their descriptions is dependent upon the historical events and the geographical setting of the country. The author has intended this source for sophisticated readers, chiefly students, not specialists. Because of this, the information includes a proper explanation of words and phrases that a reader of this nature may not understand. The dictionary is organized al phabetically and includes in-depth definitions of countless words that are often used when describing Greek culture. The definitions are accompanied by numerous photographs and drawings of applicable artifacts that applicable in describing the particular terms or phrases. These photographs are employed in the descriptions of several terms and help to further the knowledge of the reader. The entries include a variety of important figures, events, and features in Greek history. This book is no more than a preparatory foundation that is meant to inform, not educate. The dictionary includes authentic photographs of Ancient artifacts of Greek culture. Some of the photographs are particularly useful for the subject of education. They demonstrate how teachers and pupils were portrayed in ancient pictures and on artifacts. The dictionary includes many terms that could be useful in examining the art of education in ancient Greek culture; these terms include education and academy, among other s. The entry on education aids in the research of schools of Ancient Greece and the art of teaching, however it is a summarized overview and does not completely explain the subjects and techniques used in training pupils in a particular area of study. Dewald, Carolyn Greek Education and Rhetoric. Civilization of the Ancient Mediterranean. Ed. Grant, Micheal, and Rachel Kitzinger. Vol.2. Greece and Rome. New York, NY: Charles Scribners Sons, 1988. 3 Vols. 1077-1107. This source comes from volume two of a three volume set that explains, In detail, various aspects of Ancient Greek culture. The subsection entitled Greek Education and Rhetoric is under the section of Private and Social Life in volume two of this set. The book is contributed by eighty-eight scholars that have written ninety-seven essays on various aspects of Greek culture. The authors write based on concrete facts and notable ideas. The book shows both achievements and flaws of the ancient world and contains contradiction s and differences of opinion by the writers. The author of this essay explains education through different time periods and communities throughout the ancient Greek culture. The writer explains how schools and academies used literary works to educate pupils. She also illustrates how literary writers required an education in order to construct epic poems and other pieces. The author also describes the contribution made by sophists in the art of rhetoric. This well documented essay explains the subjects of professional education and technical rhetoric in the fourth century and the developments that were made in those subjects in order to better educate the pupils of the schools. The writer also explains orations and speech in the culture. The essay also goes into great detail to describe both the educational system and rhetoric of the Hellenistic and Greco-Roman cultures. This section is especially helpful for locating facts on the subject of education during ancient times. This sourc e is not especially pertinent to finding reference to the development of the alphabet or numbers, and also does not describe the materials used or the conditions of school systems of that time period. This source is very useful for an in-depth description of how the pupils were taught, however, it fails to describe the quality of the education system used by the ancient Greeks. Macbeth Themes EssayGwynn, Aubrey. Roman Education: From Cicero to Quintilian. London, England: Oxford University Press, 1926. The author, Aubrey Gwynn, wrote this essay after studying for ten years for his M.A. thesis. He was awarded a traveling scholarship to study at Oxford University, and wrote this with the assistance of the Oxford tutors. The author does admit that he focused on the general principles of Roman education, and did not really explain his ideas comprehensively. Gwynn divided this book into ten chapters, with sub-chapters when needed to break down a broad idea. The author also separated his chapters by time frame and the evolution of education in Rome. The intended audience is presumed to be the viewer of this thesis, but the essay was later reconstructed for the use of research for the educated reader. Its sole intent was to inform with fact, and not leave a philosophical meaning of theory within the reader. This is said after viewing the bibliography and noticin g some of the sources used. This author also decides to take the topic of education further by explaining the elements involved during the transformation of Roman education well into the A.D. years. The author provides justice for his theories by saying no other textbook has the grammar or rhetoric to show the authority of Quintilian, which he holds as the most prominent figure in Roman education. In this way the author could be considered bias, especially since he gives very little credit to the founders of the Roman system. Rather than giving credit to Quintilian for revolutionizing the field, this author reveres Quintilian as the greatest teacher of his time. One flaw in this source is the lack of extra material used to create greater meaning. Gwynn left out illustrations, maps, appendixes etc. and the bibliography is less diverse than others. The inclusion of maps and charts could have helped to show diffusion of the Roman civilization and the context of Rome with neighboring cu ltures. This book does not seem give a very accurate description of the evolution of education in Rome. Avi-Yonah, Michael and Shatzman, Israel. Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Classical World. New York, NY: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1975. The authors of this text were professors at the Hebrew University, but mainly wrote several volumes of encyclopedias for quick reference to topics. Both authors are widely revered scholars, who have multiple publications of Roman history. Shatzman studied in the area of Roman wealth with politics as his specialty. The qualifications of these authors are prudentially sound, so they compiled a volume of encyclopedias. Their purpose for writing the encyclopedias was to assist struggling researchers, but also to show how the modern world has been molded around history. The encyclopedia covers every technical word used in the ancient, classical world, and provides in depth definitions of each of the subjects covered. The text provides no bias because it is simply facts and definitions. The text contains a broad range of ideas, and common facts, but also offers many bibliographical sources to further independent research and studies. The passage about Roman education explains the same facts the other authors used and reiterates the importance of education in the family. This book contains very useful entries for the research topic of Roman education. The entry entitled Roman Education is one page in length and is merely a summarized account of education in Ancient Rome, however, this encyclopedia also contains cross references to other important entries that relate to Roman education, such as academies for further study, music, and various other subjects. This book is useful for identifying the key elements of a particular subject, however, it is difficult to relate the subjects to one another and the material given for any specific entry is inadequately thorough. Tracy BelcherGSTR 220 Dr. Robert HoagSentence OutlineEducation in Rome vs. Education in GreeceI.Roman education is only a reflection, not duplication, of the Greek educationsystem. II.Before schools were developed, Roman education was practically nonexistent, and education in Greece was reserved for the elite in the community. A.Training for the chosen Greek pupils included education on the subjects of music, poetry, numeracy, and religious ritual. B.By house rule, early Roman education consisted of the father as the only schoolmaster of his children. III.The development of school systems in these cultures shows some similarities in instructional content, but the system of teaching was very different. A.Ancient Greece developed the idea of school systems around the mid-seventh century B.C. B.Romans strived to achieve the same level of education as Ancient Greece. IV.The main area of instruction for both Ancient Roman and Greek pupils were primarily composed of basic arithmetic and reading and writing skills until at least age eleven. A.Classical Athens consisted of three basic forms of education : reading, music, and gymnastics. i.Reading in schools of Classical Athens typically involved the accounts of Homer. ii.Music was a very important aspect of Greek education. iii.A paidotribe, or trainer, taught sports and physical educationB.The Hellenistic period gave way to secondary education and new teaching principles. i.Children were split into age groups and studied subjects that pertained to each specific group based on the instruction that the students had already received. ii.Science and mathematics became very popular areas of study during this period of Greek culture. C.Roman curriculum consisted of many of the same concepts as the Greeks, but was also very different in content. i. As the Greek students had studied Homer, there was no dominant literary source for Roman society, therefore the children studied both Greek and Latin literature in order to obtain effective speaking skills. ii.A fundamental difference between these two cultures is the incorporation of foreign languages. iii.Young Romans would study the history of their countrys legends in great detail. D.The basic techniques of study for these two cultures were fundamentally similar. i.Roman children were often split into age groups for teaching, just as the Greeks had done during Hellenistic times. ii.Music also played a role in Roman curriculum, although it was not as highly esteemed as in the Greek schools. V.Continued education was significantly dissimilar in Greece than in Rome. A.Most Romans that wished to continue their education were sent to Greek academies for further study, or would hire a specialist. B.Greek academies were prevalent during Roman existence. i.Platos Academy was one of the well- known Greek academies that existed sometime around 387 B.C. ii.Aristotles Lyceum was another research establichment that was founded after Platos Academy and taught using different principles than most. VI.Although many Romans intended to Hellenize Roman education, the attempts were failed.